Goa is a state on the southwestern coast of India within the region known as the Konkan and geographically separated from the Deccan highlands by the Western Ghats. It is surrounded by the Indian states of Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast. It is India’s smallest state by area and its fourth-smallest by population. Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao in Goa still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first voyaged to the subcontinent in the early 16th century as merchants, and conquered it soon thereafter, whereupon Goa became an overseas territory of the Portuguese Empire, part of what was then known as Portuguese India, and remained as such for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.
History: Rock art engravings found in Goa are the earliest known traces of human life in India. In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469 when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa (or Old Goa). In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries until its annexation to India in 1961.
*(All the information are from Wikipedia.)
Airport: The Goa International Airport at Dabolim has flight connectivity to many states of Indian and to many countries in the middle east.
Rail: Goa has two rail lines – one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.
Road: Goa has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 runs along India’s west coast and links Goa to Mumbai in the north and Mangalore to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panaji to Belgaum in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 connects NH-66 to Mormugao Port from Cortalim. The new NH-566 is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport.
Ferry: There are regular ferry services from different ferry terminal in mainland Goa to its islands. While the Mormugao Port Trust near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers.
Local: Goa’s public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panaji–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. In large towns such as Panaji and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars. Vehicles are available for hire. There are auto-rickshaws for short-distance travel.
Basilica Bom Jesus: The Basilica of Bom Jesus is a Roman Catholic basilica located s part of the Churches and convents of Goa UNESCO World Heritage Site. The basilica is located in Old Goa, the former capital of Portuguese India, and holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier.
Se Cathedral: The Sé Catedral de Santa Catarina, known as Se Cathedral, is the cathedral of the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman and the seat of the Patriarch of the East Indies. It is part of the World Heritage Site, Churches and convents of Goa located in Old Goa.
Fort Aguada: Fort Aguada is a well-preserved seventeenth-century Portuguese fort, along with a lighthouse, standing in Goa, India, on Sinquerim Beach, overlooking the Arabian Sea.
Chapora Fort: Chapora Fort located in Bardez, Goa, rises high above the Chapora River. The site was the location of a fort built by Muslim ruler Adil Shah called Shahpura, whose name the Portuguese altered to Chapora.
Beaches: Goa is famous for its sandy beaches. From North Goa to South Goa the entire stretch is lined up with popular beaches like the Calangute Beach, Anjuna Beach, Baga Beach, Arambol Bech, Vagator Beach, Palolem Beach, Colva Beach and many more.
Islands: Divar, Chorao and Vanxim are the beautiful river islands where one can enjoy the calm village life of Goa. While the Grande Island is a popular island where tourists gather for Dolphin spotting, scuba diving and indulging in other water sports activities.
Churches: Apart from the landmark churches of Goa the Se Cathedra anf Basilica Bom Jesus, there are many beautiful churches in every corner of the tiny state.
The other places of interest are Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church, Shantadurga Templa, Dudhsagar Waterfalls, Tamdi Surla Mahadev Temple, Betul Fort and Lighthouse, Arvalem Waterfalls, Fort Tiracol and more.